Diabetes mellitus, types and its symptoms
what is diabetes mellitus?
- Diabetes Mellitus is a disorder in which blood sugar /glucose levels are abnormally high because the body does not produce enough insulin to meet its needs.most of the people don’t know about the Diabetes mellitus, types and its symptoms
- The origin and etiology of DM can vary greatly but always include defects in either insulin secretion or response or in both at some point in the course of the disease. Most patients with diabetes mellitus have either type 1 diabetes (which is immune-mediated or idiopathic) Type 2 DM (formerly known as non-insulin dependent DM) is the most common form of DM characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and relative insulin deficiency.
Doctors often use the full name diabetes mellitus, rather than diabetes alone, to distinguish this disorder from diabetes insipidus. Diabetes insipidus is a relatively rare disorder that does not affect blood glucose levels but, just like diabetes mellitus, also causes increased urination.
Type 1 diabetes:
In diabetes mellitus, type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent diabetes. In people with type 1 diabetes, the damaged pancreas doesn’t make insulin.This type of diabetes may be caused by a genetic predisposition. It could also be the result of faulty beta cells in the pancreas that normally produce insulin.
A number of medical risks are associated with type 1 diabetes. Many of them stem from damage to the tiny blood vessels in your eyes (called diabetic retinopathy), nerves (diabetic neuropathy), and kidneys (diabetic nephropathy). Even more serious is the increased risk of heart disease and stroke.
Scientists believe that an environmental factor—possibly a viral infection or a nutritional factor during childhood or early adulthood—causes the immune system to destroy the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. A genetic predisposition makes some people more susceptible to an environmental factor.
Treatment for type 1 diabetes involves taking insulin. The methods of injecting insulin include:
Insulin pens that use pre-filled cartridges and a fine needle
Jet injectors that use high-pressure air to send a spray of insulin through the skin
Insulin pumps that dispense insulin through flexible tubing to a catheter under the skin of the abdomen.
Type 2 diabetes:
In diabetes mellitus type 2 diabetes (formerly called non–insulin-dependent diabetes or adult-onset diabetes), the pancreas often continues to produce insulin, sometimes even at higher-than-normal levels, especially early in the disease. However, the body develops resistance to the effects of insulin, so there is not enough insulin to meet the body’s needs. As type 2 diabetes progresses, the insulin-producing ability of the pancreas decreases.Type 2 diabetes was once rare in children and adolescents but recently become more common.
However, it usually begins in people older than 30 and becomes progressively more common with age. About 26% of people older than 65 have type 2 diabetes. People of certain racial and ethnic backgrounds are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes: blacks, Asian Americans, American Indians, and people of Spanish or Latin American ancestry who live in the United States have a twofold to threefold increased risk as compared with whites. diabetes mellitus Type 2 also tends to run in families.
Obesity is the chief risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes, and 80 to 90% of people with this disorder are overweight or obese. Because obesity causes insulin resistance, obese people need very large amounts of insulin to maintain normal blood glucose levels.
Certain disorders and drugs can affect the way the body uses insulin and can lead to type 2 diabetes.
The most common causes of impaired insulin use are
High levels of corticosteroids (due to Cushing disease or taking corticosteroid drugs)
Pregnancy (gestational diabetes)
Diabetes also may occur in people with excess production of growth hormone (acromegaly) and in people with certain hormone-secreting tumors. Severe or recurring pancreatitis and other disorders that directly damage the pancreas can lead to diabetes.
Type 1 & 2 diabetes Mellitus symptoms:
The symptoms of high blood glucose levels include
When the blood glucose level rises above 160 to 180 mg/dL, glucose spills into the urine. When the level of glucose in the urine rises even higher, the kidneys excrete additional water to dilute a large amount of glucose. Because the kidneys produce excessive urine, people with diabetes urinate large volumes frequently (polyuria). The excessive urination creates abnormal thirst (polydipsia). To compensate, people often feel excessively hungry.
Other symptoms of diabetes include
Decreased endurance during exercise.